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考研英语写作有哪些技巧及注意事项

  作文作为冲刺阶段的杀手锏,考生一定得好好复习争取提分,我们应该找到写作的方法。小编为大家精心准备了考研英语写作方法和复习要点,欢迎大家前来阅读。

  考研英语写作技巧及复习注意事项

  ▶一定要多写

  写作写作,第一步首先是写!可以拿考题多加练习。写作是考研第二大重头戏,仅次于阅读。但是这部分又经常被考生忽略,考前不动手,依赖临考模板。对于考研写作,最基本的要求是考前必须动笔写出30篇文章,其中十篇应用文,二十篇图画作文。注意:动笔写的文章最好是有范文的题目。

  ▶将自己写的内容和范文进行对比

  第二个就是仔细对比,写完后对照范文从三个方面去研究:第一个是内容,也就是构思和原文有何区别;第二个是语言,也就是用词、用句和原文有何区别?第三个是结构,就是你的行文思路和原文有什么区别?

  ▶优美范文背诵

  有的同学说了,范文我背过了,但是写作的时候还是不会写。有两个原因,第一个原因是你背得不熟,背得结结巴巴,还不如不背;第二个原因是没有练过,只是死记硬背。背到什么程度哪?一定要“滚瓜烂熟、脱口而出、多多益善。”

  要背到不需要去想,不需要去动脑子!如果背一篇文章还需要去想,那就证明还背得不熟。大家上考场,如果能想起平时的70%,那已经是相当不错了。所以我们只能在平时复习的时候背的更熟才行。

  ▶试着默写

  第四个步骤就是默写:背熟后把书合上,把这篇文章默写下来。默写后,做一个工作:仔细对比原文发现写作弱点,你会发现你默写的文章和原文会有一些出入。包括拼写、语法、标点,这种错误就是你写作的弱点,把这些错误用红笔标出来。大家为什么写作拿不到高分,根源只有一个——错误太多。很多错误自己都不知道。

  ▶写作的注意点和技巧:

  写作首要的是,一、不跑题;二、字数达到要求;三、字迹整洁工整;四、少有语病。这些是很基本的要求,考试的时候就要好好落实。比如,拿到作文题目后要审题。在写的过程中注意字数的限制,不要写太多,会扣分的,字数不够也会扣分。所以实在不行就写完一段话,停下来数一数字数。

  字迹工整可能短期内提高不了。只要你比平时稍慢一点写字母,就会写得比较整洁。要知道老师的印象分是很重要的。病句的避免技巧就是,凡是你想的过程中感觉别扭的句子,多半就是病句。干脆不要写出来,换一种形式去表达。不要追求好词,要追求准确性。

  在考前,小作文的提高是非常快的。方法就是分析小作文的类型。应用文写作部分***小作文***考查内容包括投诉信、咨询信、道歉信、求职信等信函类应用文,而且涵盖报告、通知、海报等告示类应用文。不同类型的作文,要自己总结模版。小作文是完全可以准备模版的,其作用也是常明显。一定要注意:总结出适用于自己的模板。

  考研英语小作文各类信件写作技巧

  ▶一、道歉信

  道歉信是由于自己的疏忽失误而向对方表达歉意并出于诚意写出具体弥补办法。第一段首先亮出写作目的并简单阐述该物品的状态:I am writing to make an apology to you for+句子***表明事件因由***。

  第二段列出出错的原因及具体补救办法:To make up my fault, ……/ I will……as a token of my apology/ I sincerely apologize for my careless mistake as well as for any inconvenience thus caused to you.

  第三段再一次表达歉意:Once again, I am sorry for my carelessness. Looking forward to your reply.

  应用文中的这三类投诉信、建议信、道歉信,每一类都有其写作的范式和具体的内容要求,并且语言要求简单准确,所以这需要大家清楚每一类文章的一些常用语句,在平常积累背诵,在考场上信手拈来。

  ▶二、投诉信

  投诉信是对于产品、服务等的不满意,进而需要写出自己的意见和要求。

  第一段需写写信的目的以及自己的一个概括的期望:常用套话比如I venture to write to complain about ……+定语从句;I would be grateful if you could do anything necessary to solve the problem facing me.

  第二段阐述两、三方面所面临的产品或服务的问题及后果:there are several aspects underlying this complaint. For one thing,……For another,……In addition,……

  第三段给出具体的期望,比如退款或更换新产品:It is my sincere hope that you could give me full refund or replace it with a new one. Your kind reply to this letter at your earliest convenience would be very much
appreciated.

  ▶三、推荐信

  推荐信可以推荐一个人、一个地方、一本书、一部电影。在信中表明推荐的内容、原因及进一步的沟通。

  第一段概括说要推荐的内容:I am writing to you to recommend .I have sufficient reasons to introduce this to you and I dare say this is the best I have ever seen.

  第二段叙述推荐的`东西的价值,可以从表面和深层两方面来写:This movie/book/city的主题或城市坐落于哪里。What is more, 情节吸引人、里边景色引人入胜。Finally, this movie will definitely change our attitude toward this world and the people around us.
We will learn that……

  第三段总结句:Therefore I don’t hesitate to recommend this to you. I am sure you will enjoy the。

  ▶四、辞职信

  辞职信内容应包括简单对所在公司及领导的感谢,并表明辞职原因并表达歉意,最后再致歉并送上简单祝福。第一段首先致谢:I am grateful to be employed as 职位+时间。Thank you for your kind attention and I would appreciate the opportunity of having worked here.

  第二段表明自己要辞职,列出原因,比如离家远想换到更近的位置;工作不适合自己等等。现在给大家一个例子:However, I regret having to resign from my position. The reason for changing my working plan is that I have expected the job to be
interesting and challenging, which turns out to be the opposite. As a young man full of enthusiasm, I therefore decide to quit this job for something else.

  可以根据自己的具体情况给出自己的理由,切不可千篇一律。

  第三段简单表明希望得到允许、歉意及祝福:I sincerely hope that you approve of my resignation. I am sorry for any inconvenience caused. Wish you and your company great success in the future.

  ▶五、建议信

  一般就某个社会问题或个人问题给出自己的意见或建议,比如环境要改善的谏言;研究生活应该如何进行,等等。分两类建议信,一类写给机构,语言要正式严谨;而如果写给熟人,则语言可以随意一些。第一段概括写出写信的大致内容:I am writing here to provide some advice to improve……/You have asked me for
my advice concerning/with regard to……

  第二段详述具体的建议,可分条阐述:To begin with,……Besides,……Moreover,……

  第三段总结段:I hope you will find these suggestions useful and I would be ready to discuss this matter with you to further details. I am looking forward to your reply and wish you a good work.

  ▶六、求职信

  求职信内容包含简单告知求职人从何处获悉空缺职位;自我介绍阐述职位所需的而自己符合的优点;盼对方早日恢复给以面试机会。第一段:I am looking for a position in 专业 department in which I may use my training in 专业 to solve 专业 problems. I am
writing the letter in purpose of applying for your recently advertised position for a staff member.

  第二段:表明自己符合该职位。I am sure that I am qualified for it. First, enclosed with this letter is my resume, which further details my previous academic qualifications and working experience. Second, I
am young, enthusiastic and sociable, and these personalities also make me a perfect candidate for it. Last, my hobbies include……

  第三段:盼能给以面试机会并表示感谢。I wish you would give me an opportunity to be interviewed. I can be reached by calling me or the address on the envelope. I would appreciate it very much if you could
consider my application favorably at your earliest convenience and give me a reply.

  考研英语阅读技巧

  具体方法是:在其他四道题的题干和所有选项***包括它们的错误选项***中寻找一些意思相同或相近***或表述同一概念范畴***的重复出现的关键词,这些词是主旨词。在主旨题的四个选项中,与主旨词意思或褒贬性最接近的选项就是答案。具体请看下面的真题示例。

  例1,2012年英语***一***Text 3

  第35题是主旨题***答案:C***,该题如下:

  Which of the following would be the best title of the test?

  [A]. Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development

  [B]. Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery

  [C]. Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science

  [D]. Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science

  其余四道题是:

  [第31题] According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its

  [A]. uncertainty and complexity

  [B]. misconception and deceptiveness

  [C]. logicality and objectivity

  [D]. systematicness and regularity

  [第32题] It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires

  [A]. strict inspection [B]. shared efforts

  [C]. individual wisdom [D]. persistent innovation

  [第33题] Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it

  [A]. has attracted the attention of the general public

  [B]. has been examined by the scientific community

  [C]. has received recognition from editors and reviewers

  [D]. has been frequently quoted by peer scientists

  [第34题] Albert Szent-Gyorgyi would most likely agree that

  [A]. scientific claims will survive challenges

  [B]. discoveries today inspire future research

  [C]. efforts to make discoveries are justified

  [D]. scientific work calls for a critical mind

  [解析]:在其余四道题的题干和选项中,重复出现的关键词主要有scientific、discovery和credibility/credible,如红色字体所示,它们是主旨词。在主旨题第35题的四个选项中,含有主旨词的选项是BCD。其中,因为scientific和discovery是同类词,所以含主旨词信息量最多的选项是CD,答案应在CD中选择。CD都含相同的主旨词scientific和credibility,不能确定哪一个是答案。此时,再看含主旨词的题干,根据题干表述的意思确定答案。仔细研读发现,第31题和第32题的题干中都含有关键词process,它与主旨题选项C中Evolution的意思接近,所以C是主旨题的正确答案。(特别注意,题干中出现的关键词是最重要的。只需根据题干关键词也可直接找出答案)

  例2,2010年英语***一***Text 1

  第25题是主旨题***答案:B***,该题如下:

  What would be the best title for the text?

  [A]. Newspapers of the Good Old Days ***过去美好时代的报纸***

  [B]. The Lost Horizon in Newspapers ***报纸中消失的视野***

  [C]. Mournful Decline of Journalism ***新闻业可悲的衰退***

  [D]. Prominent Critics in Memory ***记忆中著名的评论家***

  其余四道题是:

  [第21题] It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that

  [A]. arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers

  [B]. English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews

  [C]. high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers

  [D]. young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies

  [第22题] Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by

  [A]. free themes [B]. casual style

  [C]. elaborate layout [D]. radical viewpoints

  [第23题] Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?

  [A]. It is writers’ duty to fulfill journalistic goals

  [B]. It is contemptible for writers to be journalists

  [C]. Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism

  [D]. Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing

  [第24题] What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?

  [A]. His music criticism may not appeal to readers today

  [B]. His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute

  [C]. His style caters largely to modern specialists

  [D]. His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition

  [解析]:在其余四道题的题干和选项中,重复出现的关键词主要有criticism/reviews ***评论,出现5次***、newspapers ***出现4次***、writers ***作者,出现4次***、journalistic/journalism
***新闻业,新闻业的,出现3次***,如红色字体所示。特别注意,关键词writers和journalistic/journalism虽然出现多次,但是它们是集中出现在一道题中,而非涵盖多道题,出现次数只是等同于一次,所以它们不是主旨词。主旨词是criticism/reviews和newspapers。在主旨题第25题的四个选项中,含有主旨词的选项是AB,答案应在AB中选择。注意,选项D中的Critics
***评论家***不是主旨词。接下来,再仔细分析AB,发现A强调的是newspapers,B强调的是the Lost Horizon。而主旨词criticism/reviews出现次数最多,还未用上,所以不能选A,A中找不出能够表述criticism/reviews的内容。事实上,B中的the Lost Horizon正是criticism/reviews的同义替换,所以B是正确答案。

  例3,2010年***英语二***Text 1

  第25题是主旨题***答案:C***,该题如下:

  The most appropriate title for this text could be

  [A]. Fluctuation of Art Prices

  [B]. Up-to-date Art Auctions

  [C]. Art Market in Decline

  [D]. Shifted Interest in Arts

  其余四道题是:

  [第21题] In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst’s sale was referred to as “a last victory” because

  [A]. the art market had witnessed a succession of victories

  [B]. the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids

  [C]. Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces

  [D]. it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis

  [第22题] By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable” ***Line 1-2, Para.3***,the author suggests that

  [A]. collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions

  [B]. people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries

  [C]. art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent

  [D]. works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying

  [第23题] Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  [A]. Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007 to 2008

  [B]. The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum

  [C]. The art market generally went downward in various ways

  [D]. Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come

  [第24题] The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are

  [A]. auction houses ‘ favorites

  [B]. contemporary trends

  [C]. factors promoting artwork circulation

  [D]. styles representing impressionists

  [解析]:在其余四道题的题干和选项中,重复出现的关键词最多的是art market,出现4次;其次是auction、fashion和fell/downward ***意思相近***,分别都出现2次,如红色字体所示。这些词***特别是art market***是主旨词。在主旨题第25题的四个选项中,含主旨词art
market的选项只有C。而且,C中还含有与主旨词fell/downward意思相近的decline。所以,C是主旨题的正确答案。

  例4,2010年英语***二***Text 4

  第40题是主旨题***答案:D***,该题如下:

  In discussing the US jury system, the text centers on

  [A]. its nature and problems

  [B]. its characteristics and tradition

  [C]. its problems and their solutions

  [D]. its tradition and development

  其余四道题是:

  [第36题] From the principles of the US jury system, we learn that

  [A]. both liberate and illiterate people can serve on juries

  [B]. defendants are immune from trial by their peers

  [C]. no age limit should be imposed for jury service

  [D]. judgment should consider the opinion of the public

  [第37题] The practice of selecting so-called elite jurors prior to 1968 showed

  [A]. the inadequacy of antidiscrimination laws

  [B]. the prevalent discrimination against certain races

  [C]. the conflicting ideals in jury selection procedures

  [D]. the arrogance common among the Supreme Court judges

  [第38题] Even in the 1960s, women were seldom on the jury list in some states because

  [A]. they were automatically banned by state laws

  [B]. they fell far short of the required qualifications

  [C]. they were supposed to perform domestic duties

  [D]. they tended to evade public engagement

  [第39题] After the Jury Selection and Service Act was passed

  [A]. sex discrimination in jury selection was unconstitutional and had to be abolished

  [B]. educational requirements became less rigid in the selection of federal jurors

  [C]. jurors at the state level ought to be representative of the entire community

  [D]. states ought to conform to the federal court in reforming the jury system

  [解析]:在其余四道题的题干和选项中,重复出现的关键词主要有jury ***出现8次***,其次是selection ***出现4次***、discrimination/antidiscrimination ***出现3次***、state ***出现3次***,如红色字体所示。仔细比较发现,主旨题第40题的四个选项中并不含有上述重复出现的任一关键词。此时,换个角度分析。注意到,有三道题的题干中出现了时间 ***
第37的“prior to 1968”、38题的“in the 1960s”*** 或表述时间范畴 ***第39题的“after…”***,据此可直接判断为,主旨应该与时间有关。而在主旨题的四个选项中,只有选项D ***传统与发展***最能表述时间范畴,所以D是正确答案。(特别注意:题干中出现的主旨词是最重要的。优先考虑题干中出现的主旨词。若题干中没有,再考虑选项中出现的主旨词)。

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